We know from personal experience just how crucial selecting the right hiking boots are for your hiking adventures. One of our own team members has bruised toes and blistered heels from a hiking trip gone wrong due to poor shoe selection. Granted, the friend she went hiking with did not tell her how difficult and long the hike would be.
Nevertheless, hiking shoes can make a huge difference during your trips. So that you can enjoy the hike without worrying about your feet, we have found the best hiking boots in Canada in 2022. After analyzing 38 products and reading 659 customer reviews over a 32 hour period, we have finally come up with the best options.
Just to give you a sneak peak, we have selected the Salomon OUTline Mid GTX Hiking Shoes as the best pick for both men and women. These shoes are lightweight, yet they also provide a lot of durability and stability you need on a hike.
To find out more about these shoes, as well as the others we recommend, keep reading. This article gives you a full review of the seven best hiking boots this year, and it ends with a convenient buying guide for further assistance.
Let’s get started!
Hiking Boots Comparative Table
TOP PICK FOR MEN AND WOMEN
|Salomon OUTline Mid GTX Hiking Shoes |
| ||9.3/10||See price on Altitude Sports (Men)|
UPGRADE PICK FOR MEN AND WOMEN
BUDGET PICK FOR MEN
|NORTIV 8 Men’s Waterproof Hiking Boots|| ||8.8/10||See price on Amazon|
BUDGET PICK FOR WOMEN
|Columbia Women’s Newton Ridge Plus Hiking Boots|| ||8.8/10||See price on Amazon|
Our Pick for The Best Hiking Boots For Men And Women
The Best Overall
Paired with lightweight flexibility and a mid range cut, the Salomon OUTline Mid GTX Hiking Shoes are for just about any adventurer. These are our top pick for the best overall hiking boot for both men and women because they offer outstanding flexibility, durability, and support at a reasonable price.
Salomon OUTline Mid GTX Hiking Shoes Video Review
What We Think of the Salomon OUTline Mid GTX Hiking Shoes
As you will learn in our buying guide, there are different types of hiking boots, which are mostly specific to your hiking needs. If you are an adventurer who likes switching things up, you probably want a great overall boot, not a specific one.
Our pick for the best overall hiking boot is the Salomon OUTline Mid GTX Hiking Shoes. This hiking boot is our favorite because it checks the boxes for most hiking boot needs and is made with a simple, stylish, yet highly effective design.
With a mid cut, it adds a lot of stability and durability, making it a great choice whether you are simply walking on a trail or doing a bit more extreme adventuring. At the same time, it is also lightweight, meaning it will not weigh your foot down either.
These are great! They are like a cross between runners and hiking boots. Super lightweight but have the ankle support as well.
The Salomon OUTline Mid GTX Hiking Shoes also comes with a number of additional elements to further protect your feet from the ground and elements. This includes an EVA midsole, OrthoLite sockliner, waterproof construction, and more.
Although this is a great overall boot, this is not necessarily a great option if you have wide feet. Just about all Salomon shoes run narrow, even though they are not listed as such. This can be an issue for wider feet, especially when wearing proper hiking socks.
If you have regular to narrow feet, however, the Salomon OUTline Mid GTX Hiking Shoes are the way to go. They are designed in such a way so that they can fulfill many types of hiking needs at once for men and women alike.
Salomon OUTline Mid GTX Hiking Shoes Specifications
- Brand: Salomon
- Color: M: Black, Beluga, Caper; W: Black, Magnet, Green Milieu
- Protection: High Traction Contagrip outsole, EVA midsole, OrthoLite sockliner, GORE-TEX membrane, Waterproof bootie, synthetic toe cap, heel strap
- Materials: Synthetic materials, EVA, GORE-TEX membrane
- Traction: Contagrip outsole
Salomon OUTline Mid GTX Hiking Shoes Pros and Cons
- Ideal for many hiking scenarios
- EVA midsole
Our Final Opinion About the Salomon OUTline Mid GTX Hiking Shoes
Quality 4.0 out of 5.0 stars.8 Effectiveness 4.0 out of 5.0 stars.7 Design 4.0 out of 5.0 stars.8 Price 4.5 out of 5.0 stars
The Salomon OUTline Mid GTX Hiking Shoes are our top pick because they are great for just about any hiking adventure. Just make sure that they fit your feet properly, and you will be more than happy with this purchase.
Our Upgrade Pick for Hiking Boots For Men And Women
The High Performance Pick
Being a favorite among hikers for over 20 years, the Lowa Renegade GTX Mid All Terrain Boots are our upgrade pick. They provide a number of durability and stability features that ensure a comfortable and safe hiking experience that you will not get from any other boot.
Lowa Renegade GTX Mid All Terrain Boots Video Review
What We Think of the Lowa Renegade GTX Mid All Terrain Boots
If you are a serious hiker who needs a boot that can take a beating, you should consider the Lowa Renegade GTX Mid All Terrain Boots. Although these boots are more expensive up front, they certainly provide durability, support, and comfortability that serious hikers need and should be willing to pay for.
This boot comes with a signature midsole that both supports and cups the foot. It also comes with a GORE-TEX lining, keeping your foot dry. All the while, the outsoles are designed to ensure traction on a variety of surfaces, keeping you safe no matter how you are hiking.
One thing we really love about these boots are that they are great no matter the weather. They are designed to provide a lot of warmth during the cold weather. At the same time, your feet do not get too hot or sweaty during warm weather. This makes it a great all around boot for every season.
I have 3 pair. I use this boot 12 months a year. Warm in winter and great in warm weather.
Part of the reason we have named this our high performance pick is that we are not the only ones who view this as a superior hiking boot. This has been an acclaimed hiking boot for over 20 years. As a result, this is a time tested boot that you can depend on.
The biggest drawback of this hiking boot is obviously its price. People who only hike occasionally probably will not want to spend the money for this boot. Depending on where you buy it from, you can pay in smaller payments, which can help you take off the load a little bit.
Like our best overall pick, this boot is also reported to run a bit small. Some users noted to go up half a size or to try on the boot before making any purchases.
Still, this is easily one of the best boots available today and yesterday. If we were to bet, it will likely be one of the best boots tomorrow too.
Lowa Renegade GTX Mid All Terrain Boots Specifications
- Brand: Lowa
- Color: M: Dark Grey, Espresso, Navy – Honey, Deep Black; F: Chili, Taupe, Prune – Rose, Deep Black, Slate – Blackberry
- Protection: GORE-TEX lining, Supportive PU midsole, Optimum cushioning, MONOWRAP, Full-length stabilizer, Temperature-regulating footbed, VIBRAM Evo outsole
- Materials: Nutbuck, suede, GORE-TEX
- Traction: Vibram outsoles
Lowa Renegade GTX Mid All Terrain Boots Pros and Cons
- Acclaimed hiking boot for 20 years
- Temperature regulated footbed
- Great for all seasons
- Superior support
- Runs small
Our Final Opinion About the Lowa Renegade GTX Mid All Terrain Boots
Quality 5.0 out of 5.0 stars Effectiveness 5.0 out of 5.0 stars Design 4.0 out of 5.0 stars.7 Price 4.0 out of 5.0 stars
If you are willing to pay top price for your hiking boots, spend your money on an acclaimed boot, such as the Lowa Renegade GTX Mid All Terrain Boots. These boots are a great upgrade choice for serious and frequent hikers.
Our Budget Pick for Hiking Boots For Men
The Value Pick For Men
The NORTIV 8 Men’s Waterproof Hiking Boots are a great value pick for men. They come in at an affordable price, yet they are also durable, comfortable, and highly supportive, making them a great pick despite their low price tag.
NORTIV 8 Men’s Waterproof Hiking Boots Video Review
What We Think of the NORTIV 8 Men’s Waterproof Hiking Boots
If the Lowa Renegade GTX Mid All Terrain Boots were out of your price range, do not worry. There are plenty of other great hiking boot options that are much more affordable. If you are looking for men’s hiking boots on a budget, the NORTIV 8 Men’s Waterproof Hiking Boots are the best place to start.
These hiking boots are made with superior materials, including suede leather, rubber, and insulative materials. These superior materials provide the protection and comfort that your feet need on a hike.
As a value pick, one thing we love about these boots are that they include multi-directional traction, which improves grip and durability. Traction is one of the most important parts of a hiking boot, proving that this affordable pick does not sacrifice safety and durability.
I am a single mom with three kids (triplets, yikes), so a $300 machine was simply not in the budget. I’ve struggled to manage my skin with regular creams and scrubs, so I really wanted to try a microdermabrasion machine. Once I found this affordable model, I knew it was my time to buy. I am so happy I did because my skin has never felt better.
It is even great for both indoor and outdoor usage, as well as winter and summer activities. For example, you can camp, cycle, mountaineer, or travel in these boots. This makes it a great choice for your money since you can do just about anything in them.
As a whole, these hiking boots are great for the light or occasional hiker, but they are not ideal for extreme hikes. If you go on multi-day treks frequently, we recommend going with something a bit sturdier and more comfortable for your own sake. Although these are impressive boots for their price, they do not provide the same support as many of the other options on this list.
Because these boots can be used in so many light ways, though, we still name this our best value pick for men. It is the great outdoor pick for people who do not need to spend hundreds of dollars on their hiking boots.
Adam H. : This is a great value boot for the price. I was skeptical at first, but they seem really good. I have not used them hiking yet, but they make a good everyday, winter boot. They are supportive, comfortable, and warm. They remain dry. I’m glad I took a chance on them.
NORTIV 8 Men’s Waterproof Hiking Boots Specifications
- Brand: Nortiv
- Color: JS19004M-Black, JS19004M-Brown, JS19005-Black, JS19005-Brown
- Protection: Rubber toe cap, Multi-directional traction
- Materials: Suede, rubber
- Traction: Multi-directional traction
NORTIV 8 Men’s Waterproof Hiking Boots Pros and Cons
- Superior value
- Great for everyday or multi-purpose use
- Great traction
- Not ideal for intense hiking
Our Final Opinion About the NORTIV 8 Men’s Waterproof Hiking Boots
Quality 4.0 out of 5.0 stars.3 Effectiveness 4.0 out of 5.0 stars.3 Design 4.5 out of 5.0 stars Price 5.0 out of 5.0 stars
The NORTIV 8 Men’s Waterproof Hiking Boots are a great choice for men on a budget. These boots are highly affordable but add great value because they are durable and useful in a variety of scenarios.
Our Budget Pick for Hiking Boots For Women
The Value Pick For Women
The Columbia Women’s Newton Ridge Plus Hiking Boots are another grade value pick, this time for women. These boots are made with superior materials and provide substantial support and durability, all while being priced very reasonably.
Columbia Women’s Newton Ridge Plus Hiking Boots Video Review
What We Think of the Columbia Women’s Newton Ridge Plus Hiking Boots
We love the Columbia Women’s Newton Ridge Plus Hiking Boots for many of the same reasons we love the NORTIV 8 Men’s Waterproof Hiking Boots. These boots come with superior materials, design, and features that make them a great value pick for hikers.
Starting with the materials, they are made with leather on the outside and a rubber sole. Leather is one of the best materials because it is breathable yet provides a lot of protection against water. To ensure full durability, the shoe’s tongue is mesh.
It also comes with features that are necessary for many hikers. For example, it offers great cushioning and a waterproof seam sealed construction. This allows you to hike even after a serious rain.
I bought these the time I hiked in New Hampshire. They have great traction on both ice and mud. They are waterproof and comfortable. I hiked for 9 hours the first time I wore them and did not get any blisters. I highly recommend!
The traction is also pretty impressive. The outsole is made with Omni-GRIP traction, making it great for hiking. The entire boot is inspired by classic mountaineering boots, which is why they offer such great support and durability.
As with the other value pick, this is not necessarily the best option for serious hikers. They will not stand up to the durability required by multi-day hikes. Additionally, the boots do not provide as much cushioning as other hiking boots, which can make the experience less enjoyable.
For its price, however, you will be hard pressed to find another woman’s hiking boots with these same specs. For this reason, the Columbia Women’s Newton Ridge Plus Hiking Boots are a great budget pick for women.
Columbia Women’s Newton Ridge Plus Hiking Boots Specifications
- Brand: Columbia
- Color: Black/Poppy Red, Cordovan/Crown Jewel, Light Brown/Cyber Purple, Quarry/Cool Wave
- Protection: Omni-GRIP technology, waterproof seam-sealed construction
- Materials: Leather, mesh, rubber
- Traction: Omni-GRIP
Columbia Women’s Newton Ridge Plus Hiking Boots Pros and Cons
- Leather and mesh exterior
- Not ideal for multi-day hikes
- Needs more cushioning
Our Final Opinion About the Columbia Women’s Newton Ridge Plus Hiking Boots
Quality 4.0 out of 5.0 stars.4 Effectiveness 4.0 out of 5.0 stars.3 Design 4.5 out of 5.0 stars Price 5.0 out of 5.0 stars
If you are looking for a great female hiking boot on a budget, the Columbia Women’s Newton Ridge Plus Hiking Boots are a great choice. They are durable and comfortable, though they areis not best for intense hiking purposes.
Alternative Products to Consider
AKU Tribute II LTR Hiking Boots Review
The Best Overall Runner-Up
The best overall runner-up is the AKU Tribute II LTR Hiking Boots. Great for both men and women, this boot provides substantial support and comfort, all while being moderately priced and providing great flexibility.
AKU Tribute II LTR Hiking Boots Video Review
What We Think of the AKU Tribute II LTR Hiking Boots
Once again, many hikers like boots that are durable and useful for many purposes. The AKU Tribute II LTR Hiking Boots are another example of a great all around boot. It is comparable to our top pick in many ways, but it is slightly different.
This boot is made from a full leather exterior, which provides a lot of durability and protection. The midsole is made with injected PU. The footbed is made with removable EVA. Together, these materials create a safe and overall comfortable hiking experience.
We also like the fact that this boot is pretty true to size. Given that improper fit has been an issue with many of our boots so far, this is a great benefit of the AKU Tribute II LTR Hiking Boots.
Awesome! This is my second purchase. My first pair initially purchased 6 years ago( wear end tear). Light weight, easy fit, comfortable, highly recommended. Reasonable price.
As our runner-up, there is obviously a reason why we did not list this as our best overall choice. Most notably, it does not come with as many protection and comfortability features. When you look down at our specs, you will see that the protection list is nowhere near as long. This makes it notably less comfortable for extreme hiking conditions.
Still, many people absolutely love these hiking boots, which is why we have named it our best runner-up. You will definitely like these boots if you are looking for a simple boot that is highly durable and all-leather.
AKU Tribute II LTR Hiking Boots Specifications
- Brand: AKU
- Color: M: Brown, F: Brown
- Protection: Injected PU, Removable EVA, Full-grain leather
- Materials: Full-grain leather, rubber
- Traction: Vibram Sendra outsole
AKU Tribute II LTR Hiking Boots Pros and Cons
- All-leather design
- True to size
- Moderately priced
- Not as much protection or cushioning as some would like
Our Final Opinion About the AKU Tribute II LTR Hiking Boots
Quality 4.0 out of 5.0 stars.7 Effectiveness 4.5 out of 5.0 stars Design 4.0 out of 5.0 stars.3 Price 4.5 out of 5.0 stars
The AKU Tribute II LTR Hiking Boots are a great runner-up for the best overall hiking boots. They have an all-leather design, ensuring a durable and long-lasting boot.
KEEN Women’s Pyrenees Hiking Boot Review
The Comfort Pick For Women
The KEEN Women’s Pyrenees Hiking Boot is the best women’s hiking boots where comfort is concerned. Whether you are on a long hike or taking a walk in the park, these boots are guaranteed to keep your feet comfortable, even right out of the box.
KEEN Women’s Pyrenees Hiking Boot Video Review
What We Think of The KEEN Women’s Pyrenees Hiking Boot
No matter what your foot size is, or what you comfortability needs may be, the KEEN Women’s Pyrenees Hiking Boot offers ultimate comfort for women. Although these boots certainly are comfortable for hiking, they are also great for daily walking and use too.
The exterior of these shoes is leather with a rubber sole. It includes an external stability shank, offering more support and improved mobility. To further their comfortability, the boot features a cushioned collar. This removes any discomfort around the ankle.
These boots were comfortable right out of the box. They are perfect for my orthotics. They are great hiking boots that I can wear for many miles.
This boot will also keep your feet comfortable where water and temperature are concerned. The boots are completely waterproof, yet they are breathable at the same time. The mesh liner integrates with the waterproof membrane, keeping your feet cool and warm environments and dry in wet ones.
There is actually very negative to say about this boot. The price is more expensive, but it may be worth it if you have incredibly sensitive feet. Additionally, it is a little bit heavier, which may be a downside if you like lightweight boots.
Nevertheless, the KEEN Women’s Pyrenees Hiking Boot is a great option if you are looking for the most comfortable boot. In addition to high comfortability, it offers great waterproof and durable features.
KEEN Women’s Pyrenees Hiking Boot Specifications
- Brand: KEEN
- Color: Syrup
- Protection: Multi-directional lugs, Non-marking rubber outsoles, External stability shank, Cushioned collar, Mesh lining
- Materials: Leather, rubber, mesh
- Traction: 4 mm multi-directional lugs
KEEN Women’s Pyrenees Hiking Boot Pros and Cons
- Highly comfortable
- Great traction
Our Final Opinion About the KEEN Women’s Pyrenees Hiking Boot
Quality 4.5 out of 5.0 stars Effectiveness 4.0 out of 5.0 stars.7 Design 4.0 out of 5.0 stars.8 Price:4.3]
The KEEN Women’s Pyrenees Hiking Boot is the best option if you are looking for the ultimately comfortable hiking boot. Made with high-quality materials and cushioning designs, this will keep your feet ultra comfortable.
KEEN Men’s Targhee II Waterproof Mid Hiking Boot Review
The Comfort Pick For Men
The KEEN Men’s Targhee II Waterproof Mid Hiking Boot is our comfort pick for men. These boots are highly comfortable, all while providing substantial durability and support for hiking.
KEEN Men’s Targhee II Waterproof Mid Hiking Boot Video Review
What We Think of the KEEN Men’s Targhee II Waterproof Mid Hiking Boot
The KEEN Men’s Targhee II Waterproof Mid Hiking Boot is a great option for men who find hiking boots uncomfortable or not sturdy enough for their feet.
Much like our comfort pick for women, this shoe is made from leather and a rubber sole. It includes an external support shank, offering stability. It also has a contoured heel, adding even more stability to the shoe.
The boot is incredibly waterproof as well. It is made with a breathable membrane, keeping your feet dry and comfortable. The outside of the shoe is treated with PFC-free water repellent. This offers great protection without exposure to harmful chemicals.
This is my second pair. They were great and are great value for the money. I used my first pair for five winters and wore them quite a bit. I bought some extra boot wax to further protect it from salt and sand. It is great for fall, winter, and spring, lightweight. I highly recommend.
One thing we especially like about this comfort pick is that multiple users noted that it is great for wide feet. Even though it is not listed as being wide foot specific, many users said that this was the case for their foot.
Like the other KEEN option, one big drawback is that it is on the expensive side. They are also not as flexible as some other options, and they run on the smaller side. Most men recommend ordering an entire size up.
If you are willing to put in extra money for a comfortable boot, however, the KEEN Men’s Targhee II Waterproof Mid Hiking Boot is a great choice. It offers impressive comfortability that you really can’t get from another boot.
KEEN Men’s Targhee II Waterproof Mid Hiking Boot Specifications
- Brand: KEEN
- Color: Raven/Tortoise Shell, Shitake/Brindle, Black Olive/Yellow
- Protection: PFC-free water repellent, all-terrain rubber outsoles, External shank support, Contoured heel
- Materials: Leather, rubber
- Traction: All-terrain outsole for traction
KEEN Men’s Targhee II Waterproof Mid Hiking Boot Pros and Cons
- Highly comfortable
- Great for wide feet
- Runs small
Our Final Opinion About the KEEN Men’s Targhee II Waterproof Mid Hiking Boot
Quality 4.5 out of 5.0 stars Effectiveness 4.0 out of 5.0 stars.7 Design 4.5 out of 5.0 stars Price:4.3]
The KEEN Men’s Targhee II Waterproof Mid Hiking Boot will keep your feet extra comfortable, making it our comfort pick for men. Just remember to go up a size since this boot runs small.
Why Should You Trust Us?
All our recommendations on The Good Choice are the result of many weeks or months of research, comparisons, analyses of user’s ratings and if need be, interviews with experts and scientists. You will quickly notice that the products we suggest here are not the most expensive or the most trendy: they are those that will best perform their daily tasks, passing all security, reliability and efficiency tests while having an appealing price-quality ratio for everyone.
In the end, the products we recommend are those we would have wanted to buy, or those we will choose for our friends and family.
Things to Know Before Buying Hiking Boots
What types of hiking boots are available?
There are multiple types of hiking boots available. For lightweight options, you might want a hiking shoe. Hiking shoes look much like tennis shoes, but they are more durable and are intended for hiking purposes specifically.
If you want a little bit more support, you could opt for hiking boots. Day hiking boots may have a mid to high cut. These are great for light loads, but they weigh more than hiking shoes and less than backpacking boots.
Backpacking boots are the most sturdy and durable of all three options. They are designed for multi-day trips, especially in deep country. The cut will be high, and these boots are typically much more durable and supportive than the lighter options.
What cut boots do I need?
The type of boot cut you need depends on your needs and intended usage. If you do not need as much ankle support and like lightweight shoes, low cut models are the best. In contrast, you will need a high cut model if you will be in extremely uneven train and need a lot more support.
If you are unsure which cut you should get, you can get a mid range model. This will provide you some flexibility and lighter weight, but it also offers more stability and control than low cut shoes.
What size hiking boot do I need?
Hiking boots need to fit correctly, or else your feet can hurt very quickly. Even worse, you could get injured. Measure your foot length, width, and arch. You also might want to look at your foot volume.
To check if your boots fit, try them on at the end of the day. Your feet swell during daily activities, causing your feet to be largest at the end of the day. Since your feet will swell during a hike, it is best to try on boots at the end of the day.
You want your hiking boots to fit snug everywhere, but not tight. At the same time, you want your toes to be able to wiggle.
What socks should I wear with hiking boots?
Whenever you are trying on hiking boots or going on the trail, make sure to wear appropriate socks. It is best to opt for hiking socks specifically or some other form of thick sock that wicks away moisture. This will keep your feet adequately protected.
How do I tie hiking boots?
There are multiple ways you can tie hiking boots. We recommend looking online for different lacing strategies. There are different ways to tie hiking boots depending on your foot pain, size, and needs.
How to Properly Choose Your Hiking Boots
Knowing the best hiking boots is only half the battle. The other half of the battle is knowing which factors to look for based on your foot needs. If you have unique foot needs, even the best hiking boots may not work for you.
To help you select the best hiking boots based on your needs specifically, you need to consider the following four factors before selecting a hiking boot. These factors can ensure that the shoe you select, whether it be on this list or not, is efficient, durable, and comfortable.
The very first thing you should look for in a hiking boot is the materials. Looking at the materials does not take much effort, but it can make the difference between an effective and ineffective hiking boot.
Some of the most common hiking boot materials include leather, synthetics, waterproof membranes, synthetics, polyurethane, and rubber.
When you are looking at the upper part of the shoe, you will typically want it to be full grain leather, split grain leather, nutbuck leather, synthetic, waterproof, or vegan. Selecting the exact material depends on your purposes. For example, opt for leather uppers if you need extreme durability but synthetics if you need a lightweight shoe.
Another really basic consideration for selecting the right hiking boot is the cut. Day hiking is great with mid to high cut boots. They do not offer as much support as backpacking boots, but they are flexible and comfortable. Backpacking boots are great for multi-day trips. They often wrap high above the ankle and provide a lot of durability and support.
Long distance hikers sometimes opt for low cut models for their lightness. This may be easier to walk in, but they do not provide as much durability or protection.
When you are hiking, your feet can get sore really fast. As a result, you want your hiking boots to offer a lot of support. Begin by looking at the midsoles. Midsoles are typically made from EVA or polyurethane. EVA is cushier and less expensive, whereas polyurethane is firmer and more durable.
Once you look at the midsoles, move on to the hiking boot internal support. There may be shanks between the boot’s midsole and outsole. This will add some load bearing stiffness. Also, look at the plates. These are inserts between the midsole and outsole.
Finally, the last thing you need to look at is the boot’s traction. The point of hiking boots are to add much more security and safety while walking on uneven terrain. The hiking boot outsoles are responsible for the traction.
Today, almost all hiking boot outsoles are made from rubber. This adds a lot of durability and protection against moisture. At the very bottom of the shoe, you need to look at the lug pattern. The lug pattern are the bumps on the outsole. This is what gives the boot traction. The deeper the lugs, the more traction the boot provides.
We do our best to provide you with a comparative guide of hiking boots allowing you to choose the best product possible. If we are missing information or new models, do not hesitate to leave a comment below or to send us a message.